Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin)
American Journal of Physical Chemistry
Received May 10, 2016, Accepted May 19, 2016; Published July 13, 2016
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin). American Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2016, pp. 80-86. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20160504.11
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin)
Methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) is an organic compound and derivative of naphthalene. It has the application in chemical, pharmaceutical, and perfume industry [1,2]. Nerolin derivatives were evaluated as a potential anti-inflammatory agents . It is used as an intermediate for the synthesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. nabumetone and naproxen, which are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme [3-5]. Neroline has many more applications, i.e. air care products, cleaning and furnishing care products, laundry and dishwashing products, and personal care products [2,6]. The limitations of nerolin while handling during production are irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin. It also causes the oral, parenteral and dermal toxicity to human. It is toxic to the aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment [2,3,7,9]. The physical hazards, intrinsic human health hazards and environmental toxicity are directly linked to the chemical intrinsic physicochemical properties .
The mass spectrometry (MS) technique is a choice for the isotope ratio analysis . The analytical technique, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can perform to analysis the relative isotopic abundance of the sample [43-46]. The previous experiment on Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treated methyl-2-naphthyl ether shown an outstanding results in the alternation of the physicochemical and structural properties of methyl-2-naphthyl ether . It is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physicochemical and thermal properties of treated methyl-2-naphthyl ether as compared to the normal sample. Considering all these aspects, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM(18O/16O) in nerolin using the GC-MS technique.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Chemicals and Reagents
The methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) was procured from Sisco Research Laboratories, India. All the other chemicals and reagents used in this experiment were analytical grade and purchased from the local vendors.
2.2. Biofield Energy Treatment Strategy
The nerolin sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as a control (untreated) while another part was subjected to biofield energy treatment and coded as treated sample. The sample for the treatment was handed over to Mr. Trivedi under standard laboratory conditions and the biofield energy treatment was performed by his unique energy transmission process approximately for 5 minutes without touching the sample . After that, the biofield energy treated sample was returned for further GC-MS analysis.
2.3. Gas Chromatograph – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
The GC-MS analysis was carried out on Perkin Elmer/Auto system XL with Turbo mass, USA. The GC-MS was accomplished in a silica capillary column. It was equipped with a quadrupole detector with pre-filter. The mass spectrometer was functioning in an electron ionization (EI) positive/negative, and chemical ionization mode at the electron ionization energy of 70 eV. Mass range: 10-650 Daltons (amu), stability: ±0.1 m/z mass accuracy over 48 hours [11-15].
2.4. Method of GC-MS Analysis and Calculation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio
The GC-MS analysis of biofield energy treated nerolin was performed at the different time intervals and symbolised as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The natural abundance of each isotope can be predicted from the comparison of the height of the isotope peak with respect to the base peak, i.e. relative abundance in the mass spectra . The values of the natural isotopic abundance of some elements are obtained from several literatures [43-46] and presented in Table 1.
The following method was used for calculating the isotopic abundance ratio:
PM stands for the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+] expressed in percentage. In other way, it indicates the probability to have A elements (for e.g.12C, 1H,16O, 14N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the parentmolecular ion [M+].
PM+1 represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+] expressed in percentage
=(no. of 13C x 1.1%) + (no. of 15N x 0.40%) + (no. of 2H x 0.015%) + (no. of 17O x 0.04%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 1 elements (for e.g. 13C, 2H, 15N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecularion [(M+1) +]
PM+2 represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)+] expressed in the percentage
= (no. of 18O x 0.20%) + (no. of 37Cl x 32.50%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 2 elements (for e.g. 18O, 37Cl, 34S, etc.) contributions to the mass of isotopic molecularion [(M+2)+]
Isotopic abundance ratio (IAR) for A + 1 elements = PM+1/PM
Similarly, isotopic abundance ratio of A + 2 elements =PM+2/PM
Percentage (%) change in isotopic abundance ratio = [(IARTreated – IARControl)/ IARControl) x 100]
Where, IARTreated is isotopic abundance ratio in the treated sample and IARControl is isotopic abundance ratio in the control sample.
3. Results and Discussion
Figure 1.The GC-MS spectrum and possible fragmentation of the control sample of nerolin.
The spectra obtained by the GC-MS analysis for the control and biofield energy treated nerolin (C11H10O) in the +ve ion mode are shown in Figure 1 and 2, respectively. The GC-MS spectrum of control nerolin showed the presence of the parent molecular ion peak at m/z 158 (calculated 158.07 for C11H10O+) and the retention time (Rt) of 15 min along with seven major fragmented peaks that were well matched with the literature [6, 47]. The biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 exhibited the parent molecular ion peaks (C11H10O+) at m/z 158 and the Rt of 14.97, 14.97, 14.99, and 15.01 min, respectively, which were very close to the Rt of the control sample. This indicates both the control and treated sample have no change in affinity/polarity. The fragmentation ion C9H7..+ shown the strong base peak at m/z 115 (relative abundance 100%) in both the control and treated nerolin. Other fragmentations C10H7O– (m/z 143), C10H8 (m/z 128), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H3+ (m/z 51), and C3H3+ (m/z 39) were observed in the mass spectrum of control and treated nerolin (Figure 1 and 2). Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated nerolin were significantly altered as compared to the control sample.
Figure 2.The GC-MS spectra of biofield energy treated nerolin analyzed at T1, T2, T3, and T4.
The molecule nerolin (C11H10N) comprises several atoms of H, C, and O in its skeleton. The relative abundances of an isotopic peak, is the contributions of several different isotopes to same peak 43 [46,48,49,The]. abundance of parent molecular ion PM the in this cluster was at m/z 158, and its size is determined solely by the most abundant element composition. PM+1 and PM+2 of nerolin can be calculated theoretically according to the method described in the materials and method.
P (13C) = [(11 x 1.1%) x 68.81% (the actual size of the M+ peak)] / 100% = 8.33%
P (2H) = [(10 x 0.015%) x 68.81%] / 100% = 0.103%
P (17O) = [(1 x 0.04%) x 68.81%] / 100% = 0.028%
Thus, PM+1 i.e. 13C, 2H, and 17O from contributions C11H10O+ to m/z 159 is 8.461%.
P (18O) = [(1 x 0.2%) x 68.81%] / 100% = 0.138%
Thus, PM+2 i.e. 18O contributions from C6H5NO3+ to m/z 160 is 0.138%
Table 1. The isotopic composition (the natural isotopic abundance) of the elements.
% Natural Abundance
A: Element; n: no of H, C, O, Cl, etc.
The calculated abundance of PM+1 and PM+2 in nerolin closely matched to the experimental value obtained in the control sample (Table 2). In general the deuterium did not contribute much any isotopic m/z. ratios because the natural abundance of deuterium is too small relative to the natural abundances of carbon and oxygen isotopes [50-53]. Hence, 13C and 18O has the major contributions from nerolin to the isotopic peak at m/z 159 and 160.
Figure 3. Percent change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated nerolin as compared to the control sample.
The percentage change in isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 are presented in Table 2. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of nerolin using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 0.17, 135.83, 9.13, and 25.57%, respectively, as compared to the control sample (Table 2 and Figure 3). Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, respectively, in comparison to the control sample (Table 2 and Figure 3). From the Figure 3, it was clearly observed that there was a different effect of biofield energy on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated nerolin with respect to the time. After biofield energy treatment, the isotopic abundance ratio was slowly increased from T1 and attend to maximize at T2, which further fell at T3 and finally increased at T4. This might be due to an incident of inter-conversion of mass between elements that leads to the variations of abundance with respect to time after biofield energy treatment. These results indicated that the biofield treated sample had the time dependent response for the alteration in the isotopic composition of nerolin.
Table 2. GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of control and biofield energy treated nerolin.
PM at m/z 158 (%)
PM+1 at m/z 159 (%)
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM)
PM+2 at m/z 160 (%)
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (PM+2/PM)
T1, T2, T3, and T4: different time intervals for the analysis of biofield energy treated sample; PM: the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+]; PM+1: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+]; PM+2: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)+].
Replacement of the isotopic composition of the nerolin significantly alters the vibrational energy [54,55]. The vibrational energy depends on the reduced mass (µ) for a diatomic molecule as shown in the below:
Where, E0 = the vibrational energy of a harmonic oscillator at absolute zero or zero point energy; f = force constant and µ (reduced mass) =
The reduced mass (µ) of some probable isotopic bonds was calculated and the results showed that µ of heavier isotopes [i.e. 13C-12C (µ=6.24), 2H-12C (µ=1.71), 16O-13C (µ=7.17), 17O-12C (µ=7.03), and18O-12C (µ=7.20)] were increased than the normal bond [i.e. 12C-12C (µ=6), 1H-12C (µ=0.92), and 16O-12C (µ=6.86)] (Table 3). The heavier isotopic molecules have lower diffusion velocity, mobility, evaporation rate, thermal decomposition and rate of reaction, but higher binding energy than the lighter molecules [54-57]. The biofield energy treated nerolin has the higher isotopic abundance ratio. Therefore, after biofield energy treatment, the bond strength, stability, and binding energy of nerolin molecule might be improved due to the higher reduced mass (µ).
Table 3.Possible isotopic bonds and their effect on the vibrational energy in nerolin.
Reduced mass (µ)(mA.mB)/mA+mB)
Zero point vibrational energy (E0)
mA: mass of atom A; mB: mass of atom B, here A and B may be C or H or O.
The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM(2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM(18O/16O) in the biofield treated nerolin were significantly increased at T2, T3, and T3 as compared to the control sample. The modern physics explained that the neutrinos change their identities, which are only possible if neutrinos possess mass and have the ability to interchange their phase internally. Because of this, the neutrinos have the ability to interact with protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Hence, there was a close relation between neutrino and the formation of the isotope [58,59]. The biofield energy significantly altered the isotopic composition at the molecular level that might be due to changes in neutron to proton ratio in the nucleus. It can be hypothesized that the changes in isotopic abundance could be due to changes in nuclei possibly through the interference of neutrino particles via biofield energy. The biofield treated methyl-2-naphthyl ether, might have changed the physicochemical and thermal properties, force constant, and reaction rate and were well supported with the previous results . This indicated that, the biofield treated nerolin might be more useful as an intermediate in various industrial applications for the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and perfumes, etc.
A: Element; GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; m/z: Mass-to-charge ratio; M: Mass of the parent molecule; PM: the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+]; PM+1: the relative peak intensity of the molecular ion isotopic [(M+1)+]; PM+2: the relative peak intensity the isotopic molecular of ion [(M+2)+].
The authors would like to thank the Sophisticated Instrumentation Centre for Applied Research and Testing (SICART), Gujarat, India for providing the instrumental facility. The authors are very grateful for the support from Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials in this research work.
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